未经证实 印度科学家发现新型肺炎有hiv基因片段 什么??

https://imgur.com/4ql4OBU
https://imgur.com/4ql4OBU


论文地址
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.01.30.927871v1.full.pdf

标题
Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag

大家不要着急这个还没peer review
不一定最终结论
已邀请:
Ambulance 救护车!快叫救护车!
哈哈,一盘大戏真正开场了嘛。看起来实验室泄漏已经越来越有可能了。

现在就等国外的哪个实验室赶紧重复验证一遍这个论文,如果能够重复的话,那就八九不离十了。

这种千载难逢的机会估计很多人要抢破头。

不过在出结果之前大家还是冷静一下,先观望几天再说。

https://www.reddit.com/r/China_Flu/comments/ewuotw/discussion_biorxiv_preprint_on_2019ncov_spike/

这边Reddit上面专业人士的评论很多都表示不看好这个研究。我个人的看法,还是要暂且观望一下,目前的证据还不能支持这个病毒是实验室合成的结论。

有一位说他找了一圈发现一大堆类似的,没有办法证明一定就是从HIV上面来的,所以这个paper就是shit。

另有一位说用基因编辑手段可能实现,但一个同时感染HIV和冠状病毒的生物也有可能在身上进行基因重组从而创造出这种病毒。并且长期的突变会洗刷掉大量HIV相关片段而只保留跟感染相关的关键片段。他的答案我觉得比较有意思在这里摘录,关键部分高亮了:

sebast13

I have tried to post my own analysis but it was removed by mods. Here it is :

I am talking about this article, which is not yet peer reviewed : https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.01.30.927871v1?=1

My experience

I do not pretend to be a world class expert on virus genomics. I did publish one paper in the field of evolutive ecotoxicology when I did my master's degree. My work involved methods that are very similar to what these authors have done. I have worked with high-throughput sequencing in research labs, but also behind computers, alinging sequences, blast searching for similarity and 3D-modelling proteins, among many other things. I have worked four years in the field and I can explain what the article is about, but I am not pretending to be in position to fully review this publication.

As I've mentionned, this has not yet been peer-reviewed, meaning that reviewers could still find inconsistencies in this paper. The authors are all indian and seem to work in the same teams from what I've gethered. Usually, researcher teams always do internally review their papers before attempting to publish them.

I did read the entire article in great detail, but I will not take time to explain absolutely everything; that would take forever.

I did not take the time to replicate the author's methods either, so I cannot pronounce myself on it's validity; I will only comment on the contents of the article.



Introduction

I did take a bit of time to look at the published genomes of 2019-n-CoV on GenBank and played a bit with it, blasting both the nucleotide sequences and protein translations for my own interest. Virus genomes are extremely small, this one is close to 30 kbp meaning it contains close to 30 000 nucleotides which are usually represented by the ''letters'' A, T, C, and G that you may have heard about as they are the base of the genetic code. After translation, this genome of 2019-nCoV codes for only 10 different proteins (viruses are very simple structurally). The first protein coded by this genome is much bigger than the others; it takes up to 2/3 of the entire genome. The article is about the second and also second biggest protein in this genome ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/1800489758 ). This surface glycoprotein, after being synthesized by the ribosome, folds in a certain way. The end result is that parts of the structure protrude outwards to form the characteristic spikes of coronaviruses. The composition of the tip of the spikes is very important functionally because they allow the virus to recognize a host cell by binding to it. Different amino acid composition at the tips of these spikes give the virus the property of recognizing differents types of cell as their host which makes them bind and inject their genetic code into the host. What basically happen afterwards is that the virus genome (in this case, RNA) will highjack the cell's molecular machinery to replicated itself in many copies that are then externalized, meaning they leave the cell to infect other cells. That is how viruses successfully reproduce to spread and try to ''win'' the game of evolution. Keep that in mind, I will come back to this later in this text.



Analysis of the paper

Here is what the researchers say they have done, in crude terms. They took 55 published sequences of 2019-nCoV and aligned them together to get a consensus sequence. Then, after translating sequences into proteins, they performed alignements between other coronaviruses's surface glycoproteins and 2019-nCoV's. When they did that, they say they were ''intrigued'' (actual phrasing in the article) by the fact that there are four gaps in the alignment. This means all coronavirus have a very similar sequence, except that 2019-nCoV has four very different sites in this protein that cause a gap in the alignment. After looking for similarity between those four unique sites and databases, it turns out the four sequences are very similar to some HIV-1 protein variants (two of them are 100% identical in terms of amino acid sequence). As they explain, this protein is very variable between HIV strains and the variants that match the 2019-nCoV sites are found in Africa and Asia. To explain this another way, the unusual spikes of 2019-nCoV match sequences from HIV, but not all knowns strains of HIV as they are highly variable in this region of the genome.

Another thing these authors did is to actually 3D-model the 2019-nCoV surface glycoprotein (from the conclusion : '' Further, 3D modelling suggests that atleast 3 of the unique inserts which are non-contiguous in the primary protein sequence of the 2019-nCoV spike glycoprotein converge to constitute the key components of the receptor binding site. Of note, all the 4 inserts have pI values of around 10 that may facilitate virus-host interactions.''). They basically used software to simulate how the protein will fold into its final shape (we call this ''conformation'') inside a living cell. Conformation is very important in terms of protein functionality. They use this method to show the sequences that are similar to this HIV strain, after 3d-modelling, could be at the tip of the spikes of the surface glycoprotein (what I've explained in the introduction).

I will also note that authors are definitely surprised by this finding, but they never directly make the claim that 2019-nCoV could have been engineered in a lab for malicious intents. They do say that this in the conclusion : '' This uncanny similarity of novel inserts in the 2019- nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag is unlikely to be fortuitous.''. They do not mean that it is impossible that nature could do this on its own. They mean it is unlikely that their observation conveys no significant information about 2019-nCoV's evolutionary history. In other words, they imply that it is unlikely that all of these four sites both evolved in 2019-nCoV and specific HIV strains independently. By extension, this implies they presume that the sequence could potentially have been passed from HIV to 2019-nCoV. They conclude with this '' Our work highlights novel evolutionary aspects of the 2019-nCoV and has implications on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of this virus.''. They basically say the pattern they found is significant in understanding this virus better.

They mention the unique sites they have found can be used to design very specific primers to diagnose the disease (PCR diagnosis is apparently already used efficiently to diagnose 2019-nCoV; I'm not sure if there is a clear need for better primers right now).



Conclusions

If confirmed, this could be a very significant finding and could mean that a small, but very functionally significant, part of 2019-nCoV's genome comes from a specific strain of HIV found mostly in Africa and Asia. This could be key in explaining how 2019-nCoV gained the ability to infect a vast array of different cells.

About people that imply this means 2019-nCoV was genetically engineered in a lab using HIV genes. Look, I cannot say it is impossible; it's definitely possible and not very difficult to insert four small sequences like that in a genome. However, horizontal gene transfer (between genomes of unrelated individuals) happens all the time in nature! It's extremely common and a massive portion of our own genome is of viral ancestry. I personally think that, if confirmed, it is more likely that it could have happened naturally in a scenario where a single host is both infected by HIV and the virus that is the ancestor of 2019-nCoV.

Why does it look so suspicious that the only HIV sequences are solely found at the very functionally relevant spike sites? Most likely because evolution has selected very strongly for keeping only adaptive sequences after a horizontal transfer event.

Why is very old viral DNA still present in our own genomes while 2019-nCoV's genome would have been washed out of all but four sequences of HIV DNA? Most likely because of the fact that viruses have strong selective pressure for the smallest genome possible (this is key in their ability to reproduce in vast numbers and infect other hosts; it is part of what defines what we call fitness which is the evolutionary fit of an organism in its environment). This means that evolution is likely to have flushed out most HIV DNA that was transfered to 2019-nCoV execept the four small sequences that were adaptive. These sequences would be key to allow 2019-nCoV to better reproduce and spread; they increase its fitness.



I'll be glad to answer questions you may have!



-------

EDIT : Immediately after I posted this and before it was removed, some guy commented on how it was suspicious how elaborate my answer is, considering how recent the publication is. I am indeed very passionate and took the last three hours to analyze the paper and write this analysis!
決不再做奴隸 黎明來到 要光復 這香港 同行兒女 為正義 時代革命 祈求 民主與自由 萬世都不朽
大圖來了https://i.imgur.com/ZRRudPc.gifZeroHedge网有更多數據

https://i.imgur.com/NnVqbKu.png
來源:https://twitter.com/ARanganathan72/status/1223320879162986496

https://i.imgur.com/19Rx1sZ.png
來源:https://twitter.com/odradesh/status/1223321375483420672

https://i.imgur.com/Aljnb0l.png
來源:https://twitter.com/DrEricDing/status/1223325141364592640

https://i.imgur.com/0STRQbC.png
來源:https://twitter.com/DrEricDing/status/1223326371642052609

批踢踢歡樂評論:
https://i.imgur.com/KxjGTwJ.png
來源:https://www.ptt.cc/bbs/Gossiping/M.1580504526.A.CF0.html
HIV基因嗎?
好可怕喔,一邊冠狀病毒讓巨噬免疫過度,一邊消滅T細胞,然後失去T細胞的B細胞無效化,整個免疫系統都壞掉了。

這會是無症狀和可重覆受感染的原因嗎,一開始就壓制住T細胞,破壞掉哨兵。

要是病毒有這種(沙士並攜HIV,R0致死雙高)的實力,大致上可以讓人類滅絕吧。
唉……你们是怀疑态度,因为你们还是承受不了冲击,接受不了现实。
“人怎么能坏到这种地步?”

我则是怀疑研究的还不够透彻,不知道的比知道的更多。比你们现在想象中的更坏。
中科院武汉病毒研究所,跑不了了。
中科院真的坏事做尽,防火墙就是他们建的。
还不赶紧抓捕武汉病毒所所有工作人员。
大家不要着急这个还没peer review

不一定最终结论

推上很多人懷疑態度
AquaRabbit 啟蒙 正典 人文
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Oh My World
What is Going On

Oh My World
What is Going On

Oh My World
What is Going On

Oh My World
What is Going On
吳樂天 愛思考的宅宅
雜交出來的神奇物種吧         所以愛滋藥變特效藥             話說這驚人傳染性       是從哪裡剪貼出來的
如果有证据能够证实老共的实验室生产了这种邪恶病毒,有什么机构法令能制裁追责他吗
超級小豬崽 勤洗手戴口罩感冒母湯趴趴造|天佑台灣qq
我OP了🤦🏻‍♂️

來自PTT鄉民的白話文,但本人文組讀這些有點抓瞎,有誤請指正,方便的話也希望有這方面知識的蔥油可以更好的說明QAQ

目前只是猜測
武漢病毒的RNA某些片段跟HIV具有異常的相似性
自然的狀態下不太可能發生這種事,所以猜不是自然產生的

這裡還有一篇

祝大家平安健康
這簡直是一個詛咒。。。太可怕了!怪不得說艾滋病的藥物有效,昨天還公佈說,這個病治好也可以再感染(治好也是終身帶病?)。。。我的媽呀,怪不得外國反應那麼大!大家真的要好好保重!不是開玩笑的!
grantyang IT男,生于北京,痛恨共匪
中国共产党这个以杀几百万几千万中国人为荣耀夺权维稳巩固自家权力的土匪团伙,制造病毒准备打击敌手不会不可能:习近平王岐山一伙愿以毁灭整个人类来换取自己继续坐在中南海享受荣华富贵
怪不得那个主任用治疗hiv药物啊,难道他们早知道了?要真的得再次刷新我对邪恶的认知. 上海那位跑去投诚的也很奇怪,天然病毒的话投了也没人理吧,有料才有可投的资本。
他给的那个论文网址是正规的科研站,并且他有蓝标认证,因此我认为这个说法至少有胆经得起挑战。就好比开源软件,你放得出来,有恶意后门的可能性几乎不存在。这个病毒到现在应当有的一个共识就是,不太可能是自然界生成的,而只能是实验室人为设计出来的,只不过现在似乎全球尚没定论是哪个邪恶的国家的实验室而已,但也许公布出来的时间不会晚吧。
所以是人工合成的病毒,是吗?

想起来了,一月头上就有说这是人工病毒并不是天然病毒,就和那八个医生在群里发确诊图片的几乎同时,而且也一样是一批国内科研人员,也是截图这种形式,说是天然的概率极低,低到几乎不可能。

如果是真的,那么这种事情一定肯定百分百兜不住的,真不是几个公安国宝黑皮狗能搞得定的
admin 公共账号 管理员公用账号
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同一培育皿种蛊出来的?难怪朝鲜第一时间关闭边境。






二十二十二十二十二十二十二十二十二十
今天支爆没 猪到时候就要出栏!无关是否有思想
 恭喜我们杂种研究出了杂交病毒
成功在一众韭菜上开展实验
如果是真的,我擔心研究人員會不會被滅口?夠聰明的快跟CIA或NSA合作啊。
所以说,王广发是不是知道什么了,第一时间吃艾滋病药。
丁亮的看法,是看有没有其他组能复现这个结果。。。
匀近平 是萌妹
可是艾滋病是反转录病毒啊?完全不同种的两种病毒拼起来?能行吗?
已经有人发现证否这一论证的证据了。先别慌,再等等看。
HIV完全是人工产物,最早就是为减少地球贫穷人口而设计的。但还是玩脱了,消息尽快证实!
我向来是不愿意以最坏的恶意来揣摩一国政府,哪怕是tg。
然而如果这个研究被证实为真,那么病毒基因编辑的可能性就无限高了,再联系到几天前就看到的用抗艾药治肺炎的消息。我真的是从逻辑上难以认为这个病毒不是人工制造出来的。
一旦实锤,大家要将有关的研究证据在墙内发布,不必直接说明合成病毒的事,几个证据一起发,让小粉红们自己去慢慢品。经过这几天各种丑闻的洗礼,我想它们目前是有一点脑子的。
NZRdlClr5 刷葱上癮了不想寫作業,救命
我不是懷疑「不至於壞到這個地步」
我是懷疑「這些人有技術做到這個地步?」
我不懂基因編輯,要是有技術,不困難
那我買口罩去
konami 請明澤姊姊跟我進行以結婚為前提的交往!
這篇論文尚未經過同儕審查,等於是一個未verify的結論,請大家小心看待。目前學說認為,跟nCoV親緣最近似的應該是蝙蝠體內的冠狀病毒,nCoV推算祖源,起源時間約在108年10月左右,華南海鮮市場並非起源地,亦即中間亦有可能經過蝙蝠以外其他未知的中間宿主,再傳染給人類。
KuajaNowapen Nipen ja cu.
印度人:吃牛粪可以治新冠肺
还是印度人:新冠病毒和HIV有相似插入

当然这只是个临时段子,我也知道前者印度人是印度神棍,后者印度人才是印度学者,就和国内卖中药的和有责任也有水平的一线医生之间的区别一样
rainf 像雨像风
别的国家我信 印度做出的研究嘛,呵呵 看看印度的水平 算了吧
hhfun 小熊维尼
天啊,这个要是真的,简直无法想象。还是再等等看看后续。太可怕了

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