【英譯漢】BBC:萬人規模民調揭示了英國的七個社會階級

譯者按:現代的社會學階級模型之一是被稱為薩維奇-迪文模型(Savage-Devine model)的包括7個階級的社會模型。這一社會模型根據一個人或者其家庭的經濟資本(ökonomisches Kapital)、社會資本(soziales Kapital)、和文化資本(kulturelles Kapital;姨學家應該很熟悉這一概念)。BBC的這篇2013年的文章是科普性質的總結。論文原文傳送門在此:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0038038513481128

Huge survey reveals seven social classes in UK
萬人規模民調揭示了英國的七個社會階級


3 April 2013

原文鏈接:https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-22007058

People in the UK now fit into seven social classes, a major survey conducted by the BBC suggests.

英國廣播公司(BBC)進行的一項主要民調顯示,今天的英國人民可以分為七個社會階級。

It says the traditional categories of working, middle and upper class are outdated, fitting 39% of people.

民調顯示,工人階級、中產階級、和上層階級的傳統分類已經過時。衹有39%的人仍然符合這種分類。

It found a new model of seven social classes ranging from the elite at the top to a "precariat" - the poor, precarious proletariat - at the bottom.

民調發現了一個包括七個社會階級的新模型,從上層的精英到下層的「不穩定無產者」,即貧困、不穩定的、沒有資產的階級。

More than 161,000 people took part in the Great British Class Survey, the largest study of class in the UK.

超過161,000人參加了英國迄今為止最大規模的社會階級民調。

Class has traditionally been defined by occupation, wealth and education. But this research argues that this is too simplistic, suggesting that class has three dimensions - economic, social and cultural.

傳統上,階級是由職業、財富、和教育定義的。但是新研究認為這把問題過於簡單化了。新研究認為階級具有三個維度:經濟、社會、和文化。

The BBC Lab UK study measured economic capital - income, savings, house value - and social capital - the number and status of people someone knows.

英國廣播公司實驗室的一項研究測量了經濟資本:收入、儲蓄、房屋價值、和社會資本。社會資本就是某人朋友的人數和地位。

The study also measured cultural capital, defined as the extent and nature of cultural interests and activities.

該研究還測量了文化資本。文化資本被定義為文化興趣和活動的範圍和性質。

The new classes are defined as:

新的社會階級是這樣定義的:

Elite - the most privileged group in the UK, distinct from the other six classes through its wealth. This group has the highest levels of all three capitals

精英階級:英國最特權的群體,與其他六個階層的不同主要在於其財富。該階級的三類資本都擁有最多

Established middle class - the second wealthiest, scoring highly on all three capitals. The largest and most gregarious group, scoring second highest for cultural capital

世家中產階級:第二富裕的階級,在所有三類資本中都獲得高分。規模最大、最喜愛社交的階級,其文化資本第二高

Technical middle class - a small, distinctive new class group which is prosperous but scores low for social and cultural capital. Distinguished by its social isolation and cultural apathy

技術中產階級:一個小規模、獨特的新生代階級群體。技術中產在經濟資本上很富有,但是在社會和文化資本上較匱乏。以其社會孤立和文化冷漠而著稱

New affluent workers - a young class group which is socially and culturally active, with middling levels of economic capital

新興富裕工薪階級:一個年輕的階級群體,其社會資本和文化資本豐富,而經濟資本一般

Traditional working class - scores low on all forms of capital, but is not completely deprived. Its members have reasonably high house values, explained by this group having the oldest average age at 66

傳統工薪階級:在三種形式的資本上都不算富裕,但並沒有被完全喪失這些資本。其成員的住房價值相當高。該群體的平均年齡最高,為66歲。

Emergent service workers - a new, young, urban group which is relatively poor but has high social and cultural capital

新型服務業工薪階級:較新的年輕城市群體,經濟資本相對匱乏,但具有較高的社會資本和文化資本

Precariat, or precarious proletariat - the poorest, most deprived class, scoring low for social and cultural capital

不穩定型無產階級:最貧窮、經濟資本最匱乏的階級,在社會資本和文化資本方面也同樣匱乏

The researchers said while the elite group had been identified before, this is the first time it had been placed within a wider analysis of the class structure, as it was normally put together with professionals and managers.

研究人員說,雖然之前已經確定了精英階級,但這是第一次將其置於對階級結構的更廣泛分析中。過去,研究通常將精英階級與專業人士和經理人放在一起。

At the opposite extreme they said the precariat, the poorest and most deprived grouping, made up 15% of the population.

相反,他們說,不穩定型無產階級是最貧窮和最貧窮的人群,佔人口的15%。

Methodology
方法學

Professor of sociology at Manchester University, Fiona Devine, said the survey really gave a sense of class in 21st Century Britain.

曼徹斯特大學社會學教授菲奧娜·迪瓦恩(Fiona Devine)說,這項調查確實揭示了21世紀英國人的階級概念。

"What it allows us is to understand is a more sophisticated, nuanced picture of what class is like now.

“它使我們能夠了解一張關於現在的階級情況的更複雜、更細微的畫面。

"It shows us there is still a top and a bottom, at the top we still have an elite of very wealthy people and at the bottom the poor, with very little social and cultural engagement," she said.

她說:“這表明我們仍然有一個金字塔尖和一個金字塔底。塔尖仍然是由非常富有的人組成的精英階級,而在塔底是窮人,幾乎沒有社會和文化參與。”

"It's what's in the middle which is really interesting and exciting, there's a much more fuzzy area between the traditional working class and traditional middle class.

“中產階級的確是有趣而令人興奮的。在傳統的工人階級和傳統的中產階級之間存在著更加模糊的領域。

"There's the emergent workers and the new affluent workers who are different groups of people who won't necessarily see themselves as working or middle class.

“英國存在著新型工薪階級和新興富裕工薪階級。他們是不同的人群。他們不一定將自己視為工薪或中產階級。

"The survey has really allowed us to drill down and get a much more complete picture of class in modern Britain."

“這項調查確實使我們能夠深入了解現代英國的階級情況。”

The researchers also found the established middle class made up 25% of the population and was the largest of all the class groups, with the traditional working class now only making up 14% of the population.

研究人員還發現,世家中產階級佔人口總數的25%,是所有階級群體中最大的。而傳統工薪階級現在僅佔人口總數的14%。

They say the new affluent workers and emergent service workers appear to be the children of the "traditional working class," which they say has been fragmented by de-industrialisation, mass unemployment, immigration and the restructuring of urban space.

他們說,新興富裕工薪階級和新型服務業工薪階級似乎是“傳統工人階級”的孩子,他們說,這些工人由於去工業化、大規模失業、移民、和城市空間重組而支離破碎。

BBC Lab UK worked with Prof Mike Savage of the London School of Economics and Prof Devine on the study.

英國廣播公司實驗室(BBC Lab UK)與倫敦經濟學院的麥克·薩維奇(Mike Savage)教授和迪文(Devine)教授共同進行了這項研究。

The findings have been published in the Sociology Journal and presented at a conference of the British Sociological Association on Wednesday.

研究結果已發表在《社會學雜誌》上,並在周三的英國社會學協會會議上發表。

Researchers asked a series of questions about income, house value, savings, cultural and leisure activities and the occupations of friends.

研究人員提出了一系列有關收入、房屋價值、儲蓄、文化、和休閒活動以及朋友職業的問題。

They were able to determine a person's economic, social and cultural capital scores from the answers and analysed the scores to create its class system.

他們能夠從答案中確定一個人的經濟資本、社會資本、和文化資本數值,並分析數值以創建其階級分類系統。

The GBCS was launched online in January 2011, but data showed participants were predominantly drawn from the well-educated social groups.

GBCS於2011年1月在線啟動,但數據顯示參與者主要來自受過良好教育的社會群體。

To overcome this a second identical survey was run with a survey company GFK, with a sample of people representing the population of the UK as a whole, using the information in parallel.

為了克服這個問題,調查公司GFK進行了第二次相同的調查,同時使用平行的信息,對代表整個英國人口的人群進行了抽樣。

(中文使用谷歌翻譯,人工修改。)
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分享 2020-02-08

1 个评论

我個人的領悟是,經濟資本往往需要幾代人的積累,而社會資本和文化資本,一代人就可以建立起來。衹是建立社會資本和文化資本非常困難,要有很大的決心。

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